Clean on Mac OS X

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This page is a work-in-progress for building Clean on recent Mac OS X systems. There is an official build for Clean on Mac, but it's 32-bit PowerPC-based; a shame since the newest Macs are 64-bit Intel-based.

Another useful page for building Clean on recent Unices is the Clean2.2 on 64bit Xubuntu page.

This guide assumes basic knowledge of and the basics of UNIX. I am writing this during my fall 2010 Functional Programming course, using a MacBook Pro 2009 model running Mac OS X 10.6.4 (later 10.6.5). You need to have XCode Tools installed before you begin. Please report back in the Discussion above what your results are.

Building the GNU assembler

Because XCode Tools contains an ancient version of the GNU assembler, we will start by building one ourselves. However, because `gas` does not seem to be able to write to 64-bit mach-o objectfiles at time of writing, we will build a version of gas that builds 64-bit ELF files, and we will convert them to Mach-O 64-bit (improvements to this process are very welcome). To start, download GNU binutils to your Downloads directory using your browser (or in your terminal if you have 'wget' or similar installed), then:

~$ mkdir /tmp/gas
~$ cd /tmp/gas
/tmp/gas$ mv ~/Downloads/binutils-2.20.1.tar.gz .
/tmp/gas$ tar -xzf binutils-2.20.1.tar.gz
/tmp/gas$ cd binutils-2.20.1/bfd
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/bfd$ ./configure --prefix="$HOME" --target="x86_64-apple-elf"
config.status: executing default commands
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/bfd$ make
touch stamp-lib
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/bfd$ cd ../opcodes
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/opcodes$ ./configure --prefix="$HOME" --target="x86_64-apple-elf"
config.status: creating po/Makefile
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/opcodes$ make
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/opcodes$ cd ../libiberty
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/libiberty$ ./configure --prefix="$HOME"
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/libiberty$ make libiberty.a
else true; fi
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/libiberty$ cd ../gas
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/gas$ ./configure --prefix="$HOME" --target="x86_64-apple-elf"
config.status: executing default commands
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/gas$ make
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/gas$ make install
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/gas$ ~/bin/x86_64-apple-elf-as --version
This assembler was configured for a target of `x86_64-apple-elf'.
/tmp/gas/binutils-2.20.1/gas$ cd /tmp

We are ready to assemble to ELF. Now, to be able to assemble to Mach-O, our native format, we need objconv, a tool by Agner Fog. Download to your Downloads folder, then:

/tmp$ mkdir objconv && cd objconv
/tmp/objconv$ mv ~/Downloads/ .
/tmp/objconv$ unzip
  inflating: objconv.exe             
  inflating: objconv-instructions.pdf  
/tmp/objconv$ unzip
/tmp/objconv$ g++ -o objconv -O2 *.cpp
/tmp/objconv$ file objconv
objconv: Mach-O 64 bit executable x86_64
/tmp/objconv$ cp objconv ~/bin/
/tmp/objconv$ cd /tmp

If you want, you can clean up your binutils and objconv build dirs, or it will happen automatically at next boot.

/tmp$ rm -rf gas
/tmp$ rm -rf objconv

Now we can finally assemble Intel gas x86-64 assembly files to 64-bit Mach-O files!

Downloading sources

Because a part of Clean is written in Clean, we need to take a 'bootstrap' package to build. This package contains some 'precompiled' Clean source (no machine-dependent object code, however). You can get it from the Download page (direct link).

Of course, the way of downloading and the place to download is up to you. I use wget and download to $HOME/clean.

~$ mkdir clean
~$ cd clean
~/clean$ wget
2010-12-27 19:46:20 (89,4 KB/s) - '`clean2.3_64_boot.tar.gz'' opgeslagen [9231078/9231078]

And unpack it...

~/clean$ tar -xzf clean2.3_64_boot.tar.gz

Download some of my patches, which will hopefully be merged (after which this guide will be updated):

~/clean$ wget
~/clean$ wget
~/clean$ wget
~/clean$ wget
~/clean$ md5sum *.patch
6d6f1af88c8401c53e71a12ba53ea59f  clean_mac_clm.patch
d257e6736f67c811fa2459c69f176b27  clean_mac_codegenerator.patch
2e857ebe4295b00d6d725fa99c4ac6a9  clean_mac_runtimesystem.patch
0adf558225538feeed2e5a20c6ada1c0  clean_mac_stdenvinclusion.patch

Building the RuntimeSystem

Because the standard Makefile assumes we are using Linux, we will build the RuntimeSystem ourselves.

~/clean$ patch -p0 <clean_mac_runtimesystem.patch 
patching file clean/src/RuntimeSystem/Makefile.macosx
patching file clean/src/RuntimeSystem/Makefileprofile.macosx
patching file clean/src/RuntimeSystem/afileIO3.asm
patching file clean/src/RuntimeSystem/scon.c
patching file clean/src/RuntimeSystem/ufileIO2.c
~/clean$ cd clean/src/RuntimeSystem
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ make -f Makefile.macosx
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ file _startup.a astartup.o
_startup.a: current ar archive
astartup.o: Mach-O 64-bit object
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ make -f Makefile.macosx proper
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ make -f Makefileprofile.macosx
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ file _startupProfile.a astartup.o
_startupProfile.a: current ar archive
astartup.o: Mach-O 64-bit object
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ make -f Makefileprofile.macosx proper
~/clean/clean/src/RuntimeSystem$ cd ../../..

Building the Code Generator

The Clean Code Generator turns intermediate Clean files (.abc) into objectfiles (.o) or assembly files (.s).

~/clean$ patch -p0 <clean_mac_codegenerator.patch
patching file clean/src/CodeGenerator/Makefile.macosx
patching file clean/src/CodeGenerator/cg.c
patching file clean/src/CodeGenerator/cgaas.c
patching file clean/src/CodeGenerator/cgawas.c
patching file clean/src/CodeGenerator/cginput.c
patching file clean/src/CodeGenerator/cgport.h
~/clean$ cd clean/src/CodeGenerator
~/clean/clean/src/CodeGenerator$ make -f Makefile.macosx
gcc o/cg.o o/cginput.o o/cgcode.o o/cginstructions.o o/cgstack.o o/cgcalc.o o/cglin.o o/cgopt.o o/cgaas.o o/cgawas.o -arch x86_64 -framework Carbon -o cg
~/clean/clean/src/CodeGenerator$ make -f Makefile.macosx proper
rm o/cg.o o/cginput.o o/cgcode.o o/cginstructions.o o/cgstack.o o/cgcalc.o o/cglin.o o/cgopt.o o/cgaas.o o/cgawas.o
~/clean/clean/src/CodeGenerator$ file cg
cg: Mach-O 64-bit executable x86_64
~/clean/clean/src/CodeGenerator$ cd ..
~/clean/clean/src$ make ../exe/cg
cp CodeGenerator/cg ../exe/cg
~/clean/clean/src$ cd ../..

Compiling patch_bin, clm and clms

We need to install patch_bin correctly first, before compiling clms. Clm will be built automatically while building patch_bin.

~/clean$ patch -p0 <clean_mac_clm.patch
patching file clean/src/tools/clm/Makefile.macosx
patching file clean/src/tools/clm/clm.c
~/clean$ cd clean/src/tools/clm
~/clean/clean/src/tools/clm$ make -f Makefile.macosx
~/clean/clean/src/tools/clm$ file patch_bin clm
patch_bin: Mach-O 64-bit executable
clm:       Mach-O 64-bit executable
~/clean/clean/src/tools/clm$ make -f Makefile.macosx clms
~/clean/clean/src/tools/clm$ file clms
clms: Mach-O 64-bit executable
~/clean/clean/src/tools/clm$ cd ../..
~/clean/clean/src$ make ../bin/patch_bin
cp tools/clm/patch_bin ../bin/patch_bin
~/clean/clean/src$ make ../bin/clm
cp tools/clm/clm ../bin/clm
~/clean/clean/src$ cd ../..

Compiling the standard libraries

The 64 bit bootstrap package that is available since Clean 2.3 is perfect for our purposes. With it, we can easily build a 64 bit version of the Clean Standard Library from the 64 bit pre-generated abc files.

One thing about this bootstrap package is that it contains object code for ELF/Linux next to the intermediary Clean files - we will simply remove these, and then rebuild the Mac object files.

~/clean$ cd clean/stdenv/Clean\ System\ Files
~/clean/clean/stdenv/Clean System Files$ rm *.o
~/clean/clean/stdenv/Clean System Files$ cp ../../exe/cg .
~/clean/clean/stdenv/Clean System Files$ cp ../../src/RuntimeSystem/_startup.a _startup.o
~/clean/clean/stdenv/Clean System Files$ cp ../../src/RuntimeSystem/_startupProfile.a _startupProfile.o

Now, until I patch `clm` to build objects the way I want to build them on Mac, we'll have to build stdenv manually:

~/clean/clean/stdenv/Clean System Files$ for i in *.abc; do j=`perl -le '$_=shift;s/\.abc$//;print' $i`; echo "Compiling $j..."; ./cg $j -s $j.s; x86_64-apple-elf-as $j.s -o $j.elf || break; objconv -fmacho64 $j.elf $j.o; done
Compiling StdArray...

Input file: StdArray.elf, output file: StdArray.o
Converting from ELF64 to Mach-O Little Endian64

  0 Debug sections removed
  0 Exception sections removed
Compiling StdBool...
StdBool.s: Assembler messages:
StdBool.s:6: Error: alignment not a power of 2
StdBool.s:25: Error: alignment not a power of 2
StdBool.s:44: Error: alignment not a power of 2

This, however, does not work yet. More to come!

Compiling the linker

This section is old and needs to be updated. Don't follow the instructions: it's useless.

We are going to need the .abc files from Linux again, so log into it. Because the build references 'clms', which seems to be the same as 'clm' except for optimalization (?), we need to make sure 'clms' is in our PATH as an alias to clm. The steps below may be different for you.

linux:~$ cd `dirname $(which clm)`
linux:~/clean/bin$ ln -s clm clms
linux:~/clean/bin$ clms
Usage: clm [options] module_name [-o application_name]
path options: -I path -IL library -P paths
linux:~/clean/bin$ cd

Now that you have a working clm, continue the build.

linux:~$ cd boot/boot/clean/clean/src
linux:~/boot/boot/clean/clean/src$ make tools/elf_linker/linker
cd tools/elf_linker; \
	../clm/clms -nr -nt -h 20m -s 2m -I ia32 -I ../../libraries/ArgEnvUnix -I ../../compiler/main/Unix -I ../../../stdenv linker -o linker; \
	cp linker ../../../exe/linker; \
	../../../bin/clm -nr -nt -h 20m -s 2m -I ia32 -I ../../libraries/ArgEnvUnix -I ../../compiler/main/Unix linker -o linker
Compiling linker
Warning [,63,accFiles;34]: no inline code for this rule
Warning [,63,stdio;33]: no inline code for this rule
Warning [linker,_match0]: function may fail
Compiling elf_linker
Generating code for elf_relocations
Generating code for elf_linker2
Linking linker

This linker is also useless, but the .abc files aren't! Copy the .abc files in "linux:~/boot/boot/clean/clean/src/tools/elf_linker/Clean System Files" to your Mac to continue. For example:

~/clean$ cd src/tools/elf_linker
~/clean/src/tools/elf_linker$ scp "stitch:boot/boot/clean/clean/src/tools/elf_linker/Clean\ System\ Files/*.abc" Clean\ System\ Files
~/clean/src/tools/elf_linker$ cd ../..
~/clean/src$ make tools/elf_linker/linker

The rest of this process is TODO

Compiling cocl


Compiling htoclean


Installing and wrapping up